Singapore’s energy flows were mapped by observing energy flows on a national scale in a Sankey diagram, and identifying the locations of the main sources and losses of energy. The breakdown of heat losses in a fine spatiotemporal resolution, for both passive and active components, allows us to understand the areas that contribute most to UHI during a typical day. Once a comprehensive understanding of the current baseline scenario is reached, it is possible to include future predictions and mitigation scenarios in order to analyse possibilities for energy usage in Singapore.
Main findings for Singapore’s energy include:
The Industry responsible for transformation of energy (i.e. Power Stations and Refineries) is responsible for more than 50% of the heat losses;
From the energy consumed (end-use), buildings are estimated to be responsible for 27% of the heat loss, while transportation is responsible for 35%. The chemical industry is responsible for around 18% and manufacturing and other industries for the remaining 21%.