ENERGY

Singapore’s energy flows were mapped by observing energy flows on a national scale in a Sankey diagram, and identifying the locations of the main sources and losses of energy. The breakdown of heat losses in a fine spatiotemporal resolution, for both passive and active components, allows us to understand the areas that contribute most to UHI during a typical day. Once a comprehensive understanding of the current baseline scenario is reached, it is possible to include future predictions and mitigation scenarios in order to analyse possibilities for energy usage in Singapore.

Main findings for Singapore’s energy include:

  • The Industry responsible for transformation of energy (i.e. Power Stations and Refineries) is responsible for more than 50% of the heat losses;

  • From the energy consumed (end-use), buildings are estimated to be responsible for 27% of the heat loss, while transportation is responsible for 35%. The chemical industry is responsible for around 18% and manufacturing and other industries for the remaining 21%.

  Energy flow of Singapore visualized by CIVAL via Singapore Views / Source: CIVAL, Sailin Zhong

Energy flow of Singapore visualized by CIVAL via Singapore Views / Source: CIVAL, Sailin Zhong

SIMULATIONS

The Cooling Singapore Team has conducted two main types of simulations, one evaluating the suggested mitigation strategies and another looking at the distribution of the UHI effect throughout Singapore. These simulations and modelling exercises allow the team to better understand the science behind UHI and how it manifests in Singapore.

 Heat rejection from transportation and buildings

Heat rejection from transportation and buildings

MITIGATION STRATEGY REPORT

Urban Heat Island and Outdoor Thermal Comfort can be addressed through a myriad of strategies. This report was put together by the Cooling Singapore team as a comprehensive overview of strategies and measures that are available to mitigate UHI and improve OTC, within the local context of Singapore. The catalogue contains 86 measures, grouped in seven clusters. Each measure describes its impact towards UHI and OTC, its applicability in the tropical climate, its integration into urban planning, and its current research status. With this catalogue, the team hope to support the urban planning and design process with actionable knowledge. The content of the catalogue is based on literature review and expert knowledge from various perspectives on urban design, transport, energy, build construction, and urban climatology.

An online version is viewable here

 

  Source : Lea A. Ruefenacht & Juan Angel Acero

Source : Lea A. Ruefenacht & Juan Angel Acero

TOOL REPORT

There are many tools available to assess Urban Heat Island (UHI) and Outdoor Thermal Comfort (OTC). As such, the Cooling Singapore team simplified guide of 24 main simulation tools able to assess the impact of different mitigation strategies in reducing UHI and improving OTC in Singapore and similar local contexts is currently available. The guide provides useful links, references, and a matrix specifically developed to help users compare the features of the 24 simulation tools, and can be used by multiple users ranging from students to policy-makers. The material was collected through literature reviews, interviews with people developing tools in Singapore, and a questionnaire within the scientific community of SEC, SMART, TUMCREATE, and NUS.

An online version is viewable here

  Source: Gloria Pignatta & Nicole Lim

Source: Gloria Pignatta & Nicole Lim