Cooling Singapore works on furthering our understanding of the Urban Heat Island effect (UHI) and Outdoor Thermal Comfort (OTC) as it applies to Singapore. Potential strategies that can be used to mitigate UHI and improve outdoor thermal comfort (OTC) are systematically assessed through existing and up-to-date simulation tools that have been inventoried and quoted based on their already known limitations but also strength in urban planning applications.

Key tasks include

  • Evaluation of the UHI determinants (as the anthropogenic heat released from buildings and road traffic), effects, countermeasure and impacts on regional climate and OTC. A modelling and simulation approach has been chosen and particular attention has been paid to energy sources and losses (in the form of heat) in Singapore by sectors and fuel types.

  • Mapping the energy flows for Singapore by observing energy flows on a national scale in a Sankey diagram, and identifying the locations of the main sources and losses of energy. This allows the Cooling Singapore Team to understand the areas that contribute most to UHI.

  • The Cooling Singapore Team has conducted two main types of simulations, one evaluating the suggested mitigation strategies and another looking at the distribution of the UHI effect throughout Singapore.

  • Outcomes of these investigations and identified knowledge gaps have been systematically published in the form of reports and guides.