Strategy Report

A comprehensive overview of strategies and measures that are available to mitigate UHI and improve OTC, within the local context of Singapore. The catalogue contains 86 measures, grouped in seven clusters. Each measure describes its impact towards UHI and OTC, its applicability in the tropical climate, its integration into urban planning, and its current research status. With this catalogue, we hope to support the urban planning and design process with actionable knowledge. The content of the catalogue is based on literature review and expert knowledge from various perspectives on urban design, transport, energy, build construction, and urban climatology.

An online version is viewable here

 

  Source : Lea A. Ruefenacht & Juan Angel Acero

Source : Lea A. Ruefenacht & Juan Angel Acero

Tool Report

A simplified guide of 24 main simulation tools able to assess the impact of different mitigation strategies in reducing Urban Heat Island (UHI) and improving Outdoor Thermal Comfort (OTC) in Singapore and similar local contexts is currently available. The guide provides useful links, references, and a matrix specifically developed to help users compare the features of the 24 simulation tools. The material was collected through literature reviews, interviews with people developing tools in Singapore, and a questionnaire within the scientific community of SEC, SMART, TUMCREATE, and NUS.

An online version is viewable here

  Source: Gloria Pignatta & Nicole Lim

Source: Gloria Pignatta & Nicole Lim

Energy

Singapore’s energy flows were mapped by observing energy flows on a national scale in a Sankey diagram, and identifying the locations of the main sources and losses of energy. The breakdown of heat losses in a fine spatiotemporal resolution, for both passive and active components, allows us to understand the areas that contribute most to UHI during a typical day. Once a comprehensive understanding of the current baseline scenario is reached, it is possible to include future predictions and mitigation scenarios in order to analyse possibilities for energy usage in Singapore.

Main findings for Singapore’s energy include:

  • The Industry responsible for transformation of energy (i.e. Power Stations and Refineries) is responsible for more than 50% of the heat losses;

  • From the energy consumed (end-use), buildings are estimated to be responsible for 27% of the heat loss, while transportation is responsible for 35%. The chemical industry is responsible for around 18% and manufacturing and other industries for the remaining 21%.

  Energy flow of Singapore visualized by CIVAL via Singapore Views / Source: CIVAL, Sailin Zhong

Energy flow of Singapore visualized by CIVAL via Singapore Views / Source: CIVAL, Sailin Zhong

Video Demo of Our Simulations

The above video is an overview of the simulations created by Cooling Singapore since its inception in 2017. These include simulations of the UHI effect in Singapore, heat rejection from buildings, and heat related from road traffic. It also includes a visualisation of the mitigation strategy analysis done for the Punggol HDB estate case study. The video was created in Singapore Views, a software developed in-house by CIVAL, demonstrating its capacity to visualise spatial data in Singapore.

Meso-scale UHI Simulations

The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was used to analyze the impact of UHI for April 2016 (the inter-monsoon season) when the UHI intensity in Singapore is expected to be at its highest. The key findings for Singapore include that the UHI effect can be as high as 4.2ºC during night time. The mitigation measures evaluated through WRF suggest that:

  1. Using high reflective materials for roofs can lower the temperatures by about 1.47ºC

  2. A 20 % reduction in energy can be achieved by increasing the thermostat set temperature in commercial buildings by 4ºC.

  3. Increasing building density can adversely affect ventilation and thermal comfort, and blockage of major breezeways should hence be avoided for developments planned for 2030.

WRF modelling and simulations can support the mitigation of UHI and help propose countermeasures to offset the impact of UHI in Singapore.  The impact of UHI is of particular interest to URA for existing and future developments. Further improvements in the modelling effort are currently underway and will help to develop a strong UHI mitigation framework.


 Heat rejection from transportation and buildings

Heat rejection from transportation and buildings