Meso-scale UHI Simulations

The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was used to analyze the impact of UHI for April 2016 (the inter-monsoon season) when the UHI intensity in Singapore is expected to be at its highest. The key findings for Singapore include that the UHI effect can be as high as 4.2ºC during night time. The mitigation measures evaluated through WRF suggest that:

  1. Using high reflective materials for roofs can lower the temperatures by about 1.47ºC

  2. A 20 % reduction in energy can be achieved by increasing the thermostat set temperature in commercial buildings by 4ºC.

  3. Increasing building density can adversely affect ventilation and thermal comfort, and blockage of major breezeways should hence be avoided for developments planned for 2030.

WRF modelling and simulations can support the mitigation of UHI and help propose countermeasures to offset the impact of UHI in Singapore.  The impact of UHI is of particular interest to urban development for existing and future developments. Further improvements in the modelling effort are currently underway and will help to develop a strong UHI mitigation framework.


This video is an overview of the simulations created by Cooling Singapore since its inception in 2017. These include simulations of the UHI effect in Singapore, heat rejection from buildings, and heat related from road traffic. It also includes a visualisation of the mitigation strategy analysis done for the Punggol HDB estate case study. The video was created in Singapore Views, a software developed in-house by CIVAL, demonstrating its capacity to visualise spatial data in Singapore.